2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), mode of spread and prevention


Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.  


Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

  • The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) informally known as the Wuhan coronavirus is a contagious virus that causes 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, a respiratory infection. It is the cause of the ongoing 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak. Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.
  • The first known human infection of Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) occurred in early December 2019.An outbreak of 2019-nCoV was first detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019, likely originating from a single infected animal.
  • The virus subsequently spread to all provinces of China and to more than two dozen other countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania.

A total of 3200 people had died from the virus and around 80000 were infected in mainland China by the end of March 4 2020.

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Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in India

India has so far reported 32 positive cases. But there is no casualties in India due corona virus.

How corona virus spreads-

Corona viruses are spread through air droplets expelled when an infected individual coughs or sneezes within a range of about 6 feet

Transmission and prevention of Corona virus

  • Human-to-human spread of the virus has been confirmed in all of these regions. On 30 January 2020, 2019-nCoV was designated a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Many early cases were linked to a large seafood and animal market, and the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin. 
  • Comparisons of the genetic sequences of this virus and other virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%) and bat coronaviruses (96%). This makes an ultimate origin in bats likely, although an intermediate host, such as a pangolin,cannot be ruled out.

  • Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people
  • Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. 

Sign and Symptoms of Corona virus

Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. 

Symptoms and precaution corona virus

Prevention and Treatment

How to prevent from corona virus

Information published by Indian Institute of Science Bangalore on 04/03/2020

  1. The corona virus has a large size where the cell size is 400–500 micro and for this reason ‘any mask can block its entry’.
  2. This virus does not settle in the air but rests on the ground, so it does not 'spread through the air'.
  3. The corona virus when it falls on a metal surface, it will live for 12 hours, hence 'washing hands with soap and water' well.
  4. The corona virus that occurs on clothes lasts for 9 hours, so 'washing clothes' or 'coming in contact with the sun for two hours' is aimed at killing it.
  5. The virus stays on the hands for 10 minutes, so putting the 'alcohol sterilizer' in the pocket serves the purpose of prevention.
  6. This virus is exposed to temperatures of 26–27 ° C. It will be killed, as it does not live in hot regions. 'Drinking hot water and spreading incense' has to do the trick and it is important to 'stay away from ice cream and eat cold'.
  7. Gargling with hot and salt water kills tonsil germs and prevents them from entering the lungs.
  8. Regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.

Hand wash steps

  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub if your hands are not visibly dirty.
  • When coughing and sneezing, cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue – discard tissue immediately into a closed bin and clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • Maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and other people, particularly those who are coughing, sneezing and have a fever.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth because If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth with your contaminated hands, you can transfer the virus from the surface to yourself. 
  • If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early.

Use mask in public place

  • Tell your health care provider if you have traveled in an area in China where 2019-nCoV has been reported, or if you have been in close contact with someone with who has traveled from China and has respiratory symptoms.
  • If you have mild respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China, carefully practice basic respiratory and hand hygiene and stay home until you are recovered, if possible.
  • As a general precaution, practice general hygiene measures when visiting live animal markets, wet markets or animal product markets.


  • There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for 2019-nCoV infection. People infected with 2019-nCoV should receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms. For severe cases, treatment should include care to support vital organ functions.
  • People who think they may have been exposed to 2019-nCoV should contact your healthcare provider immediately.


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